In: KulturPoetik 2017, Heft 1
Kunst und Erfahrung um 1900. Die ›Empirisierung des Transzendentalen‹ und die ästhetische Moderne. Eine Einleitung
Due to the rise of empirical sciences and methods in the 19th century, the preconditions of experience and perception – which Kant had formerly declared out of the reach of empirical treatment – became a matter for such exploration. This ›empiricisation‹ of transcendental concepts (especially in physiology, anthropology and linguistics) produced a variety of responses inmany cultural areas,whichmay be examined comprehensively in this broad epistemological and historical perspective. This approach may also provide a set of useful distinctions for contextual analysis: the ways in which Kantian philosophy is invoked and ›empiricised‹ either in a conceptual or amainly ›atmospheric‹ manner, the primary and secondary purposes of this particular way of reasoning, its specific contact points with transcendental philosophy, the different options for addressing the inherent tensions within the argument, its diverse expressions and cultural ›locations‹. Whereas these preliminaries aim to sort out systematically the rather fuzzy constellation of ideas, the following studies investigate in particular the strong impact that the ›empiricisation of the transcendental subject‹ had on the development ofmodern art.